Since 2005, with the launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and various other developmental programmes, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have shown perceptible progress in some of the crucial demographic and health indicators. However, there remain challenges and areas of concern pertaining to population growth, health outcomes, gender inequality, unmet needs, and nutrition among children. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar together contribute maximum to the total births, unmet needs, and people below poverty in the country. The book contains 16 selected papers from the IIPS National Seminar 2014 covers wide range of issues on the interface between population and development in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. By using the data from Census, NFHS, DLHS, NSSO and other sources, the present volume highlights the recent scenario and emerging challenges.